Elder Abuse and Dependent Adult Civil Protection Act
Cal. Welfare & Institutions Code §§ 15600–15610.65 and 15657–15657.5

California Welfare & Institutions Code
Division 9, Part 3, Chapter 11, Articles 1, 2, and 8.5
This document does not contain the complete elder abuse statute; it contains selected provisions relating to civil claims for financial elder abuse.


Article 1. Legislative Findings and Intent

§ 15600.
  1. The Legislature recognizes that elders and dependent adults may be subjected to abuse, neglect, or abandonment and that this state has a responsibility to protect these persons.
  2. The Legislature further recognizes that a significant number of these persons are elderly.  The Legislature desires to direct special attention to the needs and problems of elderly persons, recognizing that these persons constitute a significant and identifiable segment of the population and that they are more subject to risks of abuse, neglect, and abandonment.
  3. The Legislature further recognizes that a significant number of these persons have developmental disabilities and that mental and verbal limitations often leave them vulnerable to abuse and incapable of asking for help and protection.
  4. The Legislature recognizes that most elders and dependent adults who are at the greatest risk of abuse, neglect, or abandonment by their families or caretakers suffer physical impairments and other poor health that place them in a dependent and vulnerable position.
  5. The Legislature further recognizes that factors which contribute to abuse, neglect, or abandonment of elders and dependent adults are economic instability of the family, resentment of caretaker responsibilities, stress on the caretaker, and abuse by the caretaker of drugs or alcohol.
  6. The Legislature declares that this state shall foster and promote community services for the economic, social, and personal well-being of its citizens in order to protect those persons described in this section.
  7. The Legislature further declares that uniform state guidelines, which specify when county adult protective service agencies are to investigate allegations of abuse of elders and dependent adults and the appropriate role of local law enforcement is necessary in order to ensure that a minimum level of protection is provided to elders and dependent adults in each county.
  8. The Legislature further finds and declares that infirm elderly persons and dependent adults are a disadvantaged class, that cases of abuse of these persons are seldom prosecuted as criminal matters, and few civil cases are brought in connection with this abuse due to problems of proof, court delays, and the lack of incentives to prosecute these suits.
  9. Therefore, it is the intent of the Legislature in enacting this chapter to provide that adult protective services agencies, local long-term care ombudsman programs, and local law enforcement agencies shall receive referrals or complaints from public or private agencies, from any mandated reporter submitting reports pursuant to Section 15630, or from any other source having reasonable cause to know that the welfare of an elder or dependent adult is endangered, and shall take any actions considered necessary to protect the elder or dependent adult and correct the situation and ensure the individual's safety.
  10. It is the further intent of the Legislature in adding Article 8.5 (commencing with Section 15657) to this chapter to enable interested persons to engage attorneys to take up the cause of abused elderly persons and dependent adults.
§ 15601.
The purposes of this act are to:
  1. Require health practitioners, care custodians, clergy members, and employees of county adult protective services agencies and local law enforcement agencies to report known or suspected cases of abuse of elders and dependent adults and to encourage community members in general to do so.
  2. Collect information on the numbers of abuse victims, circumstances surrounding the act of abuse, and other data which will aid the state in establishing adequate services to aid all victims of abuse in a timely, compassionate manner.
  3. Provide for protection under the law for all those persons who report suspected cases of abuse, provided that the report is not made with malicious intent.

Article 2. Definitions

§ 15610.
The definitions contained in this article shall govern the construction of this chapter, unless the context requires otherwise.
§ 15610.05.
"Abandonment" means the desertion or willful forsaking of an elder or a dependent adult by anyone having care or custody of that person under circumstances in which a reasonable person would continue to provide care and custody.
§ 15610.06.
"Abduction" means the removal from this state and the restraint from returning to this state, or the restraint from returning to this state, of any elder or dependent adult who does not have the capacity to consent to the removal from this state and the restraint from returning to this state, or the restraint from returning to this state, as well as the removal from this state or the restraint from returning to this state, of any conservatee without the consent of the conservator or the court.
§ 15610.07.
"Abuse of an elder or a dependent adult" means either of the following:
  1. Physical abuse, neglect, financial abuse, abandonment, isolation, abduction, or other treatment with resulting physical harm or pain or mental suffering.
  2. The deprivation by a care custodian of goods or services that are necessary to avoid physical harm or mental suffering.
§ 15610.10.
"Adult protective services" means those preventive and remedial activities performed on behalf of elders and dependent adults who are unable to protect their own interests, harmed or threatened with harm, caused physical or mental injury due to the action or inaction of another person or their own action as a result of ignorance, illiteracy, incompetence, mental limitation, substance abuse, or poor health, lacking in adequate food, shelter, or clothing, exploited of their income and resources, or deprived of entitlement due them.
§ 15610.13.
"Adult protective services agency" means a county welfare department, except persons who do not work directly with elders or dependent adults as part of their official duties, including members of support staff and maintenance staff.
§ 15610.15.
"Bureau" means the Bureau of Medi-Cal Fraud within the office of the Attorney General.
§ 15610.17.
"Care custodian" means an administrator or an employee of any of the following public or private facilities or agencies, or persons providing care or services for elders or dependent adults, including members of the support staff and maintenance staff:
  1. Twenty-four-hour health facilities, as defined in Sections 1250, 1250.2, and 1250.3 of the Health and Safety Code.
  2. Clinics.
  3. Home health agencies.
  4. Agencies providing publicly funded in-home supportive services, nutrition services, or other home and community-based support services.
  5. Adult day health care centers and adult day care.
  6. Secondary schools that serve 18- to 22-year-old dependent adults and postsecondary educational institutions that serve dependent adults or elders.
  7. Independent living centers.
  8. Camps.
  9. Alzheimer's Disease day care resource centers.
  10. Community care facilities, as defined in Section 1502 of the Health and Safety Code, and residential care facilities for the elderly, as defined in Section 1569.2 of the Health and Safety Code.
  11. Respite care facilities.
  12. Foster homes.
  13. Vocational rehabilitation facilities and work activity centers.
  14. Designated area agencies on aging.
  15. Regional centers for persons with developmental disabilities.
  16. State Department of Social Services and State Department of Health Services licensing divisions.
  17. County welfare departments.
  18. Offices of patients' rights advocates and clients' rights advocates, including attorneys.
  19. The office of the long-term care ombudsman.
  20. Offices of public conservators, public guardians, and court investigators.
  21. Any protection or advocacy agency or entity that is designated by the Governor to fulfill the requirements and assurances of the following:
    1. The federal Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000, contained in Chapter 144 (commencing with Section 15001) of Title 42 of the United States Code, for protection and advocacy of the rights of persons with developmental disabilities.
    2. The Protection and Advocacy for the Mentally Ill Individuals Act of 1986, as amended, contained in Chapter 114 (commencing with Section 10801) of Title 42 of the United States Code, for the protection and advocacy of the rights of persons with mental illness.
  22. Humane societies and animal control agencies.
  23. Fire departments.
  24. Offices of environmental health and building code enforcement.
  25. Any other protective, public, sectarian, mental health, or private assistance or advocacy agency or person providing health services or social services to elders or dependent adults.
§ 15610.19.
"Clergy member" means a priest, minister, rabbi, religious practitioner, or similar functionary of a church, synagogue, temple, mosque, or recognized religious denomination or organization.  "Clergy member" does not include unpaid volunteers whose principal occupation or vocation does not involve active or ordained ministry in a church, synagogue, temple, mosque, or recognized religious denomination or organization, and who periodically visit elder or dependent adults on behalf of that church, synagogue, temple, mosque, or recognized religious denomination or organization.
§ 15610.20.
"Clients' rights advocate" means the individual or individuals assigned by a regional center or state hospital developmental center to be responsible for clients' rights assurance for persons with developmental disabilities.
§ 15610.23.
  1. "Dependent adult" means any person between the ages of 18 and 64 years who resides in this state and who has physical or mental limitations that restrict his or her ability to carry out normal activities or to protect his or her rights, including, but not limited to, persons who have physical or developmental disabilities, or whose physical or mental abilities have diminished because of age.
  2. "Dependent adult" includes any person between the ages of 18 and 64 years who is admitted as an inpatient to a 24-hour health facility, as defined in Sections 1250, 1250.2, and 1250.3 of the Health and Safety Code.
§ 15610.25.
"Developmentally disabled person" means a person with a developmental disability specified by or as described in subdivision (a) of Section 4512.
§ 15610.27.
"Elder" means any person residing in this state, 65 years of age or older.
§ 15610.30.
  1. "Financial abuse" of an elder or dependent adult occurs when a person or entity does any of the following:
    1. Takes, secretes, appropriates, or retains real or personal property of an elder or dependent adult to a wrongful use or with intent to defraud, or both.
    2. Assists in taking, secreting, appropriating, or retaining real or personal property of an elder or dependent adult to a wrongful use or with intent to defraud, or both.
  2. A person or entity shall be deemed to have taken, secreted, appropriated, or retained property for a wrongful use if, among other things, the person or entity takes, secretes, appropriates or retains possession of property in bad faith.
    1. A person or entity shall be deemed to have acted in bad faith if the person or entity knew or should have known that the elder or dependent adult had the right to have the property transferred or made readily available to the elder or dependent adult or to his or her representative.
    2. For purposes of this section, a person or entity should have known of a right specified in paragraph (1) if, on the basis of the information received by the person or entity or the person or entity's authorized third party, or both, it is obvious to a reasonable person that the elder or dependent adult has a right specified in paragraph (1).
  3. For purposes of this section, "representative" means a person or entity that is either of the following:
    1. A conservator, trustee, or other representative of the estate of an elder or dependent adult.
    2. An attorney-in-fact of an elder or dependent adult who acts within the authority of the power of attorney.
§ 15610.35.
"Goods and services necessary to avoid physical harm or mental suffering" include, but are not limited to, all of the following:
  1. The provision of medical care for physical and mental health needs.
  2. Assistance in personal hygiene.
  3. Adequate clothing.
  4. Adequately heated and ventilated shelter.
  5. Protection from health and safety hazards.
  6. Protection from malnutrition, under those circumstances where the results include, but are not limited to, malnutrition and deprivation of necessities or physical punishment.
  7. Transportation and assistance necessary to secure any of the needs set forth in subdivisions (a) to (f), inclusive.
§ 15610.37.
"Health practitioner" means a physician and surgeon, psychiatrist, psychologist, dentist, resident, intern, podiatrist, chiropractor, licensed nurse, dental hygienist, licensed clinical social worker or associate clinical social worker, marriage, family, and child counselor, or any other person who is currently licensed under Division 2 (commencing with Section 500) of the Business and Professions Code, any emergency medical technician I or II, paramedic, or person certified pursuant to Division 2.5 (commencing with Section 1797) of the Health and Safety Code, a psychological assistant registered pursuant to Section 2913 of the Business and Professions Code, a marriage, family, and child counselor trainee, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 4980.03 of the Business and Professions Code, or an unlicensed marriage, family, and child counselor intern registered under Section 4980.44 of the Business and Professions Code, state or county public health or social service employee who treats an elder or a dependent adult for any condition, or a coroner.
§ 15610.39.
"Imminent danger" means a substantial probability that an elder or dependent adult is in imminent or immediate risk of death or serious physical harm, through either his or her own action or inaction, or as a result of the action or inaction of another person.
§ 15610.40.
"Investigation" means that activity undertaken to determine the validity of a report of elder or dependent adult abuse.
§ 15610.43.
  1. "Isolation" means any of the following:
    1. Acts intentionally committed for the purpose of preventing, and that do serve to prevent, an elder or dependent adult from receiving his or her mail or telephone calls.
    2. Telling a caller or prospective visitor that an elder or dependent adult is not present, or does not wish to talk with the caller, or does not wish to meet with the visitor where the statement is false, is contrary to the express wishes of the elder or the dependent adult, whether he or she is competent or not, and is made for the purpose of preventing the elder or dependent adult from having contact with family, friends, or concerned persons.
    3. False imprisonment, as defined in Section 236 of the Penal Code.
    4. Physical restraint of an elder or dependent adult, for the purpose of preventing the elder or dependent adult from meeting with visitors.
  2. The acts set forth in subdivision (a) shall be subject to a rebuttable presumption that they do not constitute isolation if they are performed pursuant to the instructions of a physician and surgeon licensed to practice medicine in the state, who is caring for the elder or dependent adult at the time the instructions are given, and who gives the instructions as part of his or her medical care.
  3. The acts set forth in subdivision (a) shall not constitute isolation if they are performed in response to a reasonably perceived threat of danger to property or physical safety.
§ 15610.45.
"Local law enforcement agency" means a city police or county sheriff's department, or a county probation department, except persons who do not work directly with elders or dependent adults as part of their official duties, including members of support staff and maintenance staff.
§ 15610.47.
"Long-term care facility" means any of the following:
  1. Any long-term health care facility, as defined in subdivision (a) of Section 1418 of the Health and Safety Code.
  2. Any community care facility, as defined in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 1502 of the Health and Safety Code, whether licensed or unlicensed.
  3. Any swing bed in an acute care facility, or any extended care facility.
  4. Any adult day health care facility as defined in subdivision (b) of Section 1570.7 of the Health and Safety Code.
  5. Any residential care facility for the elderly as defined in Section 1569.2 of the Health and Safety Code.
§ 15610.50.
"Long-term care ombudsman" means the State Long-Term Care Ombudsman, local ombudsman coordinators, and other persons currently certified as ombudsmen by the Department of Aging as described in Chapter 11 (commencing with Section 9700) of Division 8.5.
§ 15610.53.
"Mental suffering" means fear, agitation, confusion, severe depression, or other forms of serious emotional distress that is brought about by forms of intimidating behavior, threats, harassment, or by deceptive acts performed or false or misleading statements made with malicious intent to agitate, confuse, frighten, or cause severe depression or serious emotional distress of the elder or dependent adult.
§ 15610.55.
  1. "Multidisciplinary personnel team" means any team of two or more persons who are trained in the prevention, identification, and treatment of abuse of elderly or dependent adults and who are qualified to provide a broad range of services related to abuse of elderly or dependent adults.
  2. A multidisciplinary personnel team may include, but is not limited to, all of the following:
    1. Psychiatrists, psychologists, or other trained counseling personnel.
    2. Police officers or other law enforcement agents.
    3. Medical personnel with sufficient training to provide health services.
    4. Social workers with experience or training in prevention of abuse of elderly or dependent adults.
    5. Public guardians.
    6. The local long-term care ombudsman.
§ 15610.57.
  1. "Neglect" means either of the following:
    1. The negligent failure of any person having the care or custody of an elder or a dependent adult to exercise that degree of care that a reasonable person in a like position would exercise.
    2. The negligent failure of an elder or dependent adult to exercise that degree of self care that a reasonable person in a like position would exercise.
  2. Neglect includes, but is not limited to, all of the following:
    1. Failure to assist in personal hygiene, or in the provision of food, clothing, or shelter.
    2. Failure to provide medical care for physical and mental health needs.  No person shall be deemed neglected or abused for the sole reason that he or she voluntarily relies on treatment by spiritual means through prayer alone in lieu of medical treatment.
    3. Failure to protect from health and safety hazards.
    4. Failure to prevent malnutrition or dehydration.
    5. Failure of an elder or dependent adult to satisfy the needs specified in paragraphs (1) to (4), inclusive, for himself or herself as a result of poor cognitive functioning, mental limitation, substance abuse, or chronic poor health.
§ 15610.60.
"Patients' rights advocate" means a person who has no direct or indirect clinical or administrative responsibility for the patient, and who is responsible for ensuring that laws, regulations, and policies on the rights of the patient are observed.
§ 15610.63.
"Physical abuse" means any of the following:
  1. Assault, as defined in Section 240 of the Penal Code.
  2. Battery, as defined in Section 242 of the Penal Code.
  3. Assault with a deadly weapon or force likely to produce great bodily injury, as defined in Section 245 of the Penal Code.
  4. Unreasonable physical constraint, or prolonged or continual deprivation of food or water.
  5. Sexual assault, that means any of the following:
    1. Sexual battery, as defined in Section 243.4 of the Penal Code.
    2. Rape, as defined in Section 261 of the Penal Code.
    3. Rape in concert, as described in Section 264.1 of the Penal Code.
    4. Spousal rape, as defined in Section 262 of the Penal Code.
    5. Incest, as defined in Section 285 of the Penal Code.
    6. Sodomy, as defined in Section 286 of the Penal Code.
    7. Oral copulation, as defined in Section 288a of the Penal Code.
    8. Sexual penetration, as defined in Section 289 of the Penal Code.
    9. Lewd or lascivious acts as defined in paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) of Section 288 of the Penal Code.
  6. Use of a physical or chemical restraint or psychotropic medication under any of the following conditions:
    1. For punishment.
    2. For a period beyond that for which the medication was ordered pursuant to the instructions of a physician and surgeon licensed in the State of California, who is providing medical care to the elder or dependent adult at the time the instructions are given.
    3. For any purpose not authorized by the physician and surgeon.

Article 8.5. Civil Actions for Abuse of Elderly or Dependent Adults

§ 15610.65.
"Reasonable suspicion" means an objectively reasonable suspicion that a person would entertain, based upon facts that could cause a reasonable person in a like position, drawing when appropriate upon his or her training and experience, to suspect abuse.
§ 15657.
Where it is proven by clear and convincing evidence that a defendant is liable for physical abuse as defined in Section 15610.63, or neglect as defined in Section 15610.57, and that the defendant has been guilty of recklessness, oppression, fraud, or malice in the commission of this abuse, the following shall apply, in addition to all other remedies otherwise provided by law:
  1. The court shall award to the plaintiff reasonable attorney's fees and costs.  The term "costs" includes, but is not limited to, reasonable fees for the services of a conservator, if any, devoted to the litigation of a claim brought under this article.
  2. The limitations imposed by Section 377.34 of the Code of Civil Procedure on the damages recoverable shall not apply.  However, the damages recovered shall not exceed the damages permitted to be recovered pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 3333.2 of the Civil Code.
  3. The standards set forth in subdivision (b) of Section 3294 of the Civil Code regarding the imposition of punitive damages on an employer based upon the acts of an employee shall be satisfied before any damages or attorney's fees permitted under this section may be imposed against an employer.
§ 15657.01.
Notwithstanding Section 483.010 of the Code of Civil Procedure, an attachment may be issued in any action for damages pursuant to Section 15657.5 for financial abuse of an elder or dependent adult, as defined in Section 15610.30. The other provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure not inconsistent with this article shall govern the issuance of an attachment pursuant to this section. In an application for a writ of attachment, the claimant shall refer to this section. An attachment may be issued pursuant to this section whether or not other forms of relief are demanded.
§ 15657.03.
  1. An elder or dependent adult who has suffered abuse as defined in Section 15610.07 may seek protective orders as provided in this section.
  2. For the purposes of this section, "protective order" means an order that includes any of the following restraining orders, whether issued ex parte, after notice and hearing, or in a judgment:
    1. An order enjoining a party from abusing, intimidating, molesting, attacking, striking, stalking, threatening, sexually assaulting, battering, harassing, telephoning, including, but not limited to, annoying telephone calls as described in Section 653m of the Penal Code, destroying personal property, contacting, either directly or indirectly, by mail or otherwise, or coming within a specified distance of, or disturbing the peace of the petitioner.
    2. An order excluding a party from the petitioner's residence or dwelling, except that this order shall not be issued if legal or equitable title to, or lease of, the residence or dwelling is in the sole name of the party to be excluded, or is in the name of the party to be excluded and any other party besides the petitioner.
    3. An order enjoining a party from specified behavior that the court determines is necessary to effectuate orders described in paragraph (1) or (2).
  3. An order may be issued under this section, with or without notice, to restrain any person for the purpose of preventing a recurrence of abuse, if an affidavit shows, to the satisfaction of the court, reasonable proof of a past act or acts of abuse of the petitioning elder or dependent adult.
    1. Upon filing a petition for protective orders under this section, the petitioner may obtain a temporary restraining order in accordance with Section 527 of the Code of Civil Procedure, except to the extent this section provides a rule that is inconsistent. The temporary restraining order may include any of the protective orders described in subdivision (b). However, the court may issue an ex parte order excluding a party from the petitioner's residence or dwelling only on a showing of all of the following:
      1. Facts sufficient for the court to ascertain that the party who will stay in the dwelling has a right under color of law to possession of the premises.
      2. That the party to be excluded has assaulted or threatens to assault the petitioner.
      3. That physical or emotional harm would otherwise result to the petitioner.
    2. If a temporary restraining order is granted without notice, the matter shall be made returnable on an order requiring cause to be shown why a permanent order should not be granted, on the earliest day that the business of the court will permit, but not later than 20 days or, if good cause appears to the court, 25 days from the date the temporary restraining order is granted, unless the order is otherwise modified or terminated by the court.
  4. The court may issue, upon notice and a hearing, any of the orders set forth in subdivision (b). The court may issue, after notice and hearing, an order excluding a person from a residence or dwelling if the court finds that physical or emotional harm would otherwise result to the other party.
  5. In the discretion of the court, an order issued after notice and a hearing under this section may have a duration of not more than three years, subject to termination or modification by further order of the court either on written stipulation filed with the court or on the motion of a party. These orders may be renewed upon the request of a party, either for three years or permanently, without a showing of any further abuse since the issuance of the original order, subject to termination or modification by further order of the court either on written stipulation filed with the court or on the motion of a party. The failure to state the expiration date on the face of the form creates an order with a duration of three years from the date of issuance.
  6. Upon the filing of a petition for protective orders under this section, the respondent shall be personally served with a copy of the petition, notice of the hearing or order to show cause, temporary restraining order, if any, and any affidavits in support of the petition. Service shall be made at least five days before the hearing. The court may, on motion of the petitioner or on its own motion, shorten the time for service on the respondent.
  7. The court may, upon the filing of an affidavit by the applicant that the respondent could not be served within the time required by statute, reissue an order previously issued and dissolved by the court for failure to serve the respondent. The reissued order shall be made returnable on the earliest day that the business of the court will permit, but not later than 20 days or, if good cause appears to the court, 25 days from the date of reissuance. The reissued order shall state on its face the date of expiration of the order.
    1. If the person named in a temporary restraining order is personally served with the order and notice of hearing with respect to a restraining order or protective order based thereon, but the person does not appear at the hearing, either personally or by counsel, and the terms and conditions of the restraining order or protective order are identical to the temporary restraining order, except for the duration of the order, then the restraining order or protective order may be served on the person by first-class mail sent to that person at the most current address for the person available to the court.
    2. The judicial form for orders issued pursuant to this subdivision shall contain a statement in substantially the following form: "NO ADDITIONAL PROOF OF SERVICE IS REQUIRED IF THE FACE OF THIS FORM INDICATES THAT BOTH PARTIES WERE PERSONALLY PRESENT AT THE HEARING WHERE THE ORDER WAS ISSUED. IF YOU HAVE BEEN PERSONALLY SERVED WITH A TEMPORARY RESTRAINING ORDER OR EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE ORDER AND NOTICE OF HEARING, BUT YOU DO NOT APPEAR AT THE HEARING EITHER IN PERSON OR BY COUNSEL, AND A RESTRAINING ORDER OR PROTECTIVE ORDER IS ISSUED AT THE HEARING THAT DOES NOT DIFFER FROM THE PRIOR TEMPORARY RESTRAINING ORDER OR EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE ORDER, A COPY OF THE ORDER WILL BE SERVED UPON YOU BY MAIL AT THE FOLLOWING ADDRESS ____. IF THAT ADDRESS IS NOT CORRECT OR YOU WISH TO VERIFY THAT THE TEMPORARY OR EMERGENCY ORDER WAS MADE PERMANENT WITHOUT SUBSTANTIVE CHANGE, CALL THE CLERK OF THE COURT AT ____."
    1. The court shall order the petitioner or the attorney for the petitioner to deliver, or the clerk of the court to mail, a copy of an order issued under this section, or a reissuance, extension, modification, or termination of the order, and any subsequent proof of service, by the close of the business day on which the order, reissuance, extension, modification, or termination was made, to each local law enforcement agency designated by the petitioner or the attorney for the petitioner having jurisdiction over the residence of the petitioner, and to any additional law enforcement agencies within the court's discretion as are requested by the petitioner. Each appropriate law enforcement agency shall make available information as to the existence and current status of these orders to law enforcement officers responding to the scene of reported abuse.
    2. An order issued under this section shall, on request of the petitioner, be served on the respondent, whether or not the respondent has been taken into custody, by any law enforcement officer who is present at the scene of reported abuse involving the parties to the proceeding. The petitioner shall provide the officer with an endorsed copy of the order and a proof of service, which the officer shall complete and send to the issuing court.
    3. Upon receiving information at the scene of an incident of abuse that a protective order has been issued under this section, or that a person who has been taken into custody is the respondent to that order, if the protected person cannot produce an endorsed copy of the order, a law enforcement officer shall immediately attempt to verify the existence of the order.
    4. If the law enforcement officer determines that a protective order has been issued, but not served, the officer shall immediately notify the respondent of the terms of the order and where a written copy of the order can be obtained, and the officer shall at that time also enforce the order. The law enforcement officer's verbal notice of the terms of the order shall constitute service of the order and is sufficient notice for the purposes of this section and for the purposes of Section 273.6 of the Penal Code.
  8. Nothing in this section shall preclude either party from representation by private counsel or from appearing on the party's own behalf.
  9. There is no filing fee for a petition, response, or paper seeking the reissuance, modification, or enforcement of a protective order filed in a proceeding brought pursuant to this section.
    1. Fees otherwise payable by a petitioner to a law enforcement agency for serving an order issued under this section may be waived in any case in which the petitioner has requested a fee waiver on the initiating petition and has filed a declaration that demonstrates, to the satisfaction of the court, the financial need of the petitioner for the fee waiver. The declaration required by this subdivision shall be on one of the following forms:
      1. The form formulated and adopted by the Judicial Council for litigants proceeding in forma pauperis pursuant to Section 68511.3 of the Government Code, but the petitioner is not subject to any other requirements of litigants proceeding in forma pauperis.
      2. Any other form that the Judicial Council may adopt for this purpose pursuant to subdivision (r).
    2. In conjunction with a hearing pursuant to this section, the court may make an order for the waiver of fees otherwise payable by the petitioner to a law enforcement agency for serving an order issued under this section.
  10. The prevailing party in any action brought under this section may be awarded court costs and attorney's fees, if any.
    1. An order issued pursuant to this section shall prohibit the person subject to it from owning, possessing, purchasing, receiving, or attempting to purchase or receive, a firearm.
    2. Paragraph (1) shall not apply to a case consisting solely of financial abuse unaccompanied by force, threat, harassment, intimidation, or any other form of abuse.
    3. The court shall order a person subject to a protective order issued under this section to relinquish any firearms he or she owns or possesses pursuant to Section 527.9 of the Code of Civil Procedure.
    4. Every person who owns, possesses, purchases, or receives, or attempts to purchase or receive a firearm while the protective order is in effect is punishable pursuant to subdivision (g) of Section 12021 of the Penal Code.
  11. Any willful disobedience of any temporary restraining order or restraining order after hearing granted under this section is punishable pursuant to Section 273.6 of the Penal Code.
  12. This section does not apply to any action or proceeding covered by Title 1.6C (commencing with Section 1788) of Part 4 of Division 3 of the Civil Code, by Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 525) of Title 7 of Part 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure, or by Division 10 (commencing with Section 6200) of the Family Code. Nothing in this section shall preclude a petitioner's right to use other existing civil remedies.
  13. The Judicial Council shall promulgate forms and instructions therefor, rules for service of process, scheduling of hearings, and any other matters required by this section. The petition and response forms shall be simple and concise.
§ 15657.04.
  1. The court shall order that any party enjoined pursuant to Section 15657.03 be prohibited from taking any action to obtain the address or location of a protected party or a protected party's family members, caretakers, or guardian, unless there is good cause not to make that order.
  2. The Judicial Council shall promulgate forms necessary to effectuate this section.
§ 15657.05.
Where it is proven by clear and convincing evidence that an individual is liable for abduction, as defined in Section 15610.06, in addition to all other remedies otherwise provided by law:
    1. The court shall award to the plaintiff reasonable attorney' s fees and costs.  The term "costs" shall include, but is not limited to, costs of representing the abductee and his or her family in this state and any other state in any action related to the abduction and returning of the abductee to this state, as well as travel expenses for returning the abductee to this state and reasonable fees for the services of a conservator, if any, devoted to the litigation of a claim brought under this article.
    2. The award of attorney's fees shall be governed by the principles set forth in Section 15657.1.
  1. The limitations imposed by Section 377.34 of the Code of Civil Procedure on the damages recoverable shall not apply.  However, the damages recovered shall not exceed the damages permitted to be recovered pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 3333.2 of the Civil Code.
  2. The standards set forth in subdivision (b) of Section 3294 of the Civil Code regarding the imposition of punitive damages on an employer based upon the acts of an employee shall be satisfied before any damages or attorney's fees permitted under this section may be imposed against an employer.
§ 15657.1.
The award of attorney's fees pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 15657 shall be based on all factors relevant to the value of the services rendered, including, but not limited to, the factors set forth in Rule 4-200 of the Rules of Professional Conduct of the State Bar of California, and all of the following:
  1. The value of the abuse-related litigation in terms of the quality of life of the elder or dependent adult, and the results obtained.
  2. Whether the defendant took reasonable and timely steps to determine the likelihood and extent of liability.
  3. The reasonableness and timeliness of any written offer in compromise made by a party to the action.
§ 15657.2.
Notwithstanding this article, any cause of action for injury or damage against a health care provider, as defined in Section 340.5 of the Code of Civil Procedure, based on the health care provider's alleged professional negligence, shall be governed by those laws which specifically apply to those professional negligence causes of action.
§ 15657.3.
  1. The department of the superior court having jurisdiction over probate conservatorships shall also have concurrent jurisdiction over civil actions and proceedings involving a claim for relief arising out of the abduction, as defined in Section 15610.06, or the abuse of an elderly or dependent adult, if a conservator has been appointed for plaintiff prior to the initiation of the action for abuse.
  2. The department of the superior court having jurisdiction over probate conservatorships shall not grant relief under this article if the court determines that the matter should be determined in a civil action, but shall instead transfer the matter to the general civil calendar of the superior court. The court need not abate any proceeding for relief pursuant to this article if the court determines that the civil action was filed for the purpose of delay.
  3. The death of the elder or dependent adult does not cause the court to lose jurisdiction of any claim for relief for abuse of an elder or dependent adult.
    1. Subject to paragraph (2) and subdivision (e), after the death of the elder or dependent adult, the right to commence or maintain an action shall pass to the personal representative of the decedent. If there is no personal representative, the right to commence or maintain an action shall pass to any of the following, if the requirements of Section 377.32 of the Code of Civil Procedure are met:
      1. An intestate heir whose interest is affected by the action.
      2. The decedent's successor in interest, as defined in Section 377.11 of the Code of Civil Procedure.
      3. An interested person, as defined in Section 48 of the Probate Code, as limited in this subparagraph. As used in this subparagraph, "an interested person" does not include a creditor or a person who has a claim against the estate who is not an heir or beneficiary of the decedent's estate.
    2. If the personal representative refuses to commence or maintain an action or if the personal representative's family or an affiliate, as those terms are defined in subdivision (c) of Section 1064 of the Probate Code, is alleged to have committed abuse of the elder or dependent adult, the persons described in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (1) shall have standing to commence or maintain an action for elder abuse.  Nothing in this paragraph shall require the court to resolve the merits of an elder abuse action for the purposes of finding that a plaintiff who meets the qualifications of subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (1) has standing to commence or maintain such an action.
  4. If two or more persons who are either described in subparagraphs (A), (B), or (C) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (d), or a personal representative claim to have standing to commence or maintain an action for elder abuse, upon petition or motion, the court in which the action or proceeding is pending, may make any order concerning the parties that is appropriate to ensure the proper administration of justice in the case pursuant to Section 377.33 of the Code of Civil Procedure.
  5. This section does not affect the applicable statute of limitations for commencing an action for relief for abuse of an elderly or dependent adult.
§ 15657.5.
  1. Where it is proven by a preponderance of the evidence that a defendant is liable for financial abuse, as defined in Section 15610.30, in addition to all other remedies otherwise provided by law, the court shall award to the plaintiff reasonable attorney's fees and costs.  The term "costs" includes, but is not limited to, reasonable fees for the services of a conservator, if any, devoted to the litigation of a claim brought under this article.
  2. Where it is proven by a preponderance of the evidence that a defendant is liable for financial abuse, as defined in Section 15610.30, and where it is proven by clear and convincing evidence that the defendant has been guilty of recklessness, oppression, fraud, or malice in the commission of the abuse, in addition to reasonable attorney's fees and costs set forth in subdivision (a), and all other remedies otherwise provided by law, the following shall apply:
    1. The limitations imposed by Section 377.34 of the Code of Civil Procedure on the damages recoverable shall not apply.
    2. The standards set forth in subdivision (b) of Section 3294 of the Civil Code regarding the imposition of punitive damages on an employer based upon the acts of an employee shall be satisfied before any damages or attorney's fees permitted under this section may be imposed against an employer.
  3. Nothing in this section affects the award of punitive damages under Section 3294 of the Civil Code.